THE ELASMODIVER SHARK AND RAY FIELD GUIDE

 

SHARK GUIDE

SHARK PICTURES

WHAT'S NEW?

SHARK BLOG

MERCHANDISE

SHARK TRIPS

SITE MAP

E-MAIL

 
 SHARK INFO

SHARK FIELD GUIDE

SHARK PICTURES

SHARK TAXONOMY

SHARK  BIOLOGY

SHARK EVOLUTION

SHARK FACTS

 

SHARK DIVING

SHARK  EXPEDITIONS

SHARK DIVING 101

SHARK  HOTSPOTS

SHARK  STORIES

FEEDING SHARKS

SHARK ATTACKS

THE SHARK TOUR

 

CONSERVATION

UNDER THREAT

PREDATORS IN PERIL

 

PHOTOGRAPHY

SHARK PHOTO TIPS

DAILY SHARK PIC

 

RESOURCES

SHARK NEWS

SHARK LINKS

SHARK BOOKS

SHARK FILMS

SHARK TERMS

 

WEB STUFF

CONTACT INFO

ABOUT ELASMODVR

ANDY MURCH BIO

 

WHAT IS ELASMODIVER?

Not just Shark Pictures: Elasmodiver contains photos of sharks, skates, rays, and chimaera's from around the world. Elasmodiver began as a simple web based shark field guide to help divers find the best places to encounter the different species of sharks and rays that live in shallow water but it has slowly evolved into a much larger project containing information on all aspects of shark diving and shark photography.

There are now more than 10,000 shark pictures  and sections on shark evolution, biology, and conservation. There is a large library of reviewed shark books, a constantly updated shark taxonomy page, a monster list of shark links, and deeper in the site there are numerous articles and stories about shark encounters. Elasmodiver is now so difficult to check for updates, that new information and pictures are listed on an Elasmodiver Updates Page that can be accessed here:

WHAT'S NEW?

Shark picture - green sawfish

_

 

 

 

 

The taxonomy of sharks and rays

The taxonomy of sharks and rays is a subject that remains in hot debate. Although the majority of elasmobranch families have been nailed down there will always be individual species that don't quite fit the characteristics of their sibling species. Consequently species are occasionally reclassified or simply listed as awaiting review. One of the most confusing of families is the Potamotrygonidae - the fresh water stingrays of South America. Not only do these ray species adopt extremely varied patterns that are sometimes visually indistinguishable from other species, they also produce hybrids in certain parts of their ranges leaving us wondering what exactly a true species is anyway.

Among shark taxonomists conservative estimates of the number of known shark species is now approaching 500. Combined with the 700 or more species of rays and skates there are well over a thousand valid species of elasmobranches. In the past many more species were described only to be discounted later as being synonymous with elasmobranches already described from other geographic areas. In recent years this problem has lessened because taxonomic data has become easier to share over the internet. However, taxonomists are as vain as the rest of us and in their efforts to be the first to describe (and name) a new species there is often a counterproductive lack of collaboration.

Some abyssal species have been described from only one or two specimens captured during deep water trawls. This implies that in all likelihood there are many shark and ray species lurking on the abyssal plain that have not yet been seen or captured. The best example being the relatively recent discovery of the Megamouth Shark. If this large and slow moving shark could remain hidden until the 1980's, who knows how many other elasmobranches have gone unnoticed.

Following is a list (in need of an update) of all the described species of elasmobranchs. Included at the bottom are the Holocephali (the chimaeras or ghost sharks) that share many characteristics with modern sharks and rays but are thought to be descended from a different group of cartilaginous fishes that thrived during the Late Devonian Period.

 

Shark Family Tree

Other pages on Elasmodiver relating to Shark and Ray taxonomy:

 

Newly described sharks and rays

Occasionally new species of sharks and rays are described by science. In some cases they have been well known for a while e.g. the Western wobbegong but no one has gotten around to describing them. More exciting is when a deep water trawl or a lucky diving expedition uncovers a species that the scientific community was completely unaware of. This page on elasmodiver highlights the discovery of these species. Many thanks to Helmut Nickel who somehow manages to find out whenever a new species is described and diligently informs the rest of the lay community of shark fanatics through Shark-L. Without his input I wouldn't have a clue.

If you have information about a species I have overlooked please email me the information and I will add it to the list.

Description of the Dasyatidae - Whiptail Stingrays

Includes a key to identifying the genus of the Dasyatidae (Whiptail stingrays).

 

Description of the Potamotrygonidae - River Stingrays

Includes a key to identifying the genus of the Potamotrygonidae (River Stingrays).

 

KINGDOM METAZOA - Animals

 

PHYLUM CHORDATA - Animals that at some point in their life cycle have the following: Pharyngeal slits (a series of openings connecting the inside of the throat to the outside of the neck. In fish these become gill slits), dorsal nerve cord (a bundle of nerve fibres running down the back, connecting the brain with the organs and extremities, a notochord (a cartilaginous rod supporting the nerve cord), post anal tail (an extension of the 'back' past the anal opening).

|__

SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATA - Animals with a vertibral column or backbone and neural crest cells which are released as the nerve cord is forming, these cells move through the body to form major nerves, neural ganglia, and many head and facial features. Other features that separate vertebrates from other chordates include: a relatively well-developed brain, paired complex eyes, a muscularized mouth and pharynx, and a well-developed circulatory system with a heart.

|__

CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES - Cartilaginous fishes lacking true bone. Chondrichthyes can be split into two distinct subclasses ELASMOBRANCHII and BRADYODONTI.

|__

SUBCLASS ELASMOBRANCHII - SHARKS, SKATES AND RAYS (and some fossil relatives). Elasmobranchs have an upper jaw that is not fused to the braincase and separate slitted gill openings.

 

SHARK ORDERS (SELACHE)

HEXANCHIFORMES - Sixgill, Sevengill and Frilled Sharks  

SQUALIFORMES - Dogfish Sharks, sleeper sharks, gulper sharks and lantern sharks

PRISTIOPHORIFORMES - Sawsharks

SQUATINIFORMES - Angelsharks

HETERODONTIFORMES - Bullhead Sharks

ORECTOLOBIFORMES - Carpetsharks 

LAMNIFORMES - Mackerel Sharks

CARCHARHINIFORMES - Ground Sharks 

 

RAY ORDERS

TORPEDINIFORMES - Electric rays

MYLIOBATIFORMES - Stingrays, Eagle rays, Butterfly rays, Devil rays, Cownose rays

PRISTIFORMES - Sawfishes

RHINOBATIFORMES - Guitarfishes

RAJIFORMES - Skates

 

|__

SUBCLASS HOLOCEPHALI - includes forms with an upper jaw fused to the braincase and a flap of skin, the operculum, covering the gill slits. The Holocephalii includes the chimaeras and ratfishes, which are relatively rare, often deep-water, mollusc-eating forms.

 

CHIMAERA ORDERS

CHIMAERIFORMES - Chimaeras

 

 

Order HEXANCHIFORMES - Sixgill, Sevengill and Frilled Sharks   TOP  

Family CHLAMYDOSELA  - Frilled Sharks

Chlamydoselachus anguineus - Frilled shark

 

Family HEXANCHIDAE  - Sixgill and Sevengill SharksFour Species

Heptranchias perlo - Sharpnose sevengill shark

Hexanchus griseus - Bluntnose sixgill shark

Hexanchus nakamurai - Bigeye sixgill shark

Notorynchus cepedianus - Broadnose or spotted sevengill shark

 

Order SQUALIFORMES - Dogfish Sharks   BACK TO TOP 

 

Family CENTROPHORIDAE - Gulper Sharks

Centrophorus acus - Needle dogfish

Centrophorus granulosus - Gulper shark

Centrophorus harrissoni - Dumb gulper shark

Centrophorus lusitanicus - Lowfin gulper shark

Centrophorus moluccensis - Smallfin gulper shark

Centrophorus niaukang - Taiwan gulper shark

Centrophorus squamosus - Leafscale gulper shark

Centrophorus tesselatus - Mosaic gulper shark

Centrophorus uyato - Little gulper shark

Deania calcea - Birdbeak dogfish

Deania hystricosum - Rough longnose dogfish

Deania profundorum - Arrowhead dogfish

Deania quadrispinosum - Longsnout dogfish

 

Family DALATIIDAE - Kitefin Sharks

Dalatias licha - Kitefin shark

Euprotomicroides zantedeschia - Taillight shark

Europtomicrus bispinatus - Pygmy shark

Heteroscymnoides marleyi - Longnose pygmy shark

Isistius brasiliensis - Cookiecutter or cigar shark

Isistius plutodus - Largetooth cookiecutter shark

Mollisquama parini - Softskin dogfish

Squaliolus laticaudus - Spined pygmy shark

 

Family ECHINORHINIDAE - Bramble Sharks

Echinorhinus brucus - Bramble shark

Echinorhinus cookei - Prickly shark

 

Family ETMOPTERIDAE - Lantern Sharks

Aculeola nigra - Hooktooth dogfish

Centroscyllium fabricii - Black dogfish

Centroscyllium granulatum - Granular dogfish

Centroscyllium kamoharai - Bareskin dogfish

Centroscyllium nigrum - Combtooth dogfish

Centroscyllium ornatum - Ornate dogfish

Centroscyllium ritteri - Whitefin dogfish

Etmopterus baxteri - New Zealand lanternshark

Etmopterus brachyurus - Shorttail lanternshark

Etmopterus bullisi - Lined lanternshark

Etmopterus carteri - Cylindrical lanternshark

Etmopterus decacuspidatus - Combtooth lanternshark

Etmopterus gracilispinis - Broadband lanternshark

Etmopterus granulosus - Southern lanternshark

Etmopterus hillianus - Carribean lanternshark

Etmopterus lucifer - Blackbelly lanternshark

Etmopterus perryi - Dwarf lanternshark

Etmopterus polli - African lanternshark

Etmopterus princeps - Great lanternshark

Etmopterus pusillus - Smooth lanternshark

Etmopterus schultzi - Fringefin lanternshark

Etmopterus sentosus - Thorny lanternshark

Etmopterus spinax - Velvet belly

Etmopterus unicolor - Brown lanternshark

Etmopterus villosus - Hawaiian lanternshark

Etmopterus virens - Green lanternshark

 

Family SOMNIOSIDAE - Sleeper Sharks

Centroscymnus coelolepis - Portuguese dogfish

Centroscymnus crepidater - Longnose velvet dogfish

Centroscymnus cryptacanthus - Shortnose velvet dogfish

Centroscymnus macracanthus - Largespine velvet dogfish

Centroscymnus owstoni - Roughskin dogfish

Centroscymnus plunketi - Plunket shark

Scymnodalatias sherwoodi - Sherwood dogfish

Scymnodon ichiharai - Japanese velvet dogfish

Scymnodon ringens - Knifetooth dogfish

Scymnodon squamulosus - Greenland sleeper shark

Somniosus microcephalus - Greenland Shark

Somniosus pacificus - Pacific sleeper shark

Somniosus rostratus - Little sleeper shark

 

Family SQUALIDAE - Dogfish sharks

Cirrhigaleus barbifer - Mandarin dogfish

Squalus acanthias - Spiny dogfish

Squalus asper - Roughskin spurdog

Squalus blainvillei - Longnose spurdog

Squalus cubensis - Cuban dogfish

Squalus japonicus - Japanese spurdog

Squalus magalops - Shortnose spurdog

Squalus melanurus - Blacktail spurdog

Squalus mitsukurii - Shortspine spurdog

Squalus rancureli - Cyrano spurdog

Squalus suckleyi - Spotted spiny dogfish

 

Family OXYNOTIDAE - Roughsharks

Oxynotus bruniensis - Prickly dogfish

Oxynotus carribaeus - Carribean roughshark

Oxynotus centrina - Angular roughshark

Oxynotus japonicus - Japanese roughshark

Oxynotus paradoxus - Sailfin roughshark

 

Order PRISTIOPHORIFORMES - Sawsharks   BACK TO TOP

Family PRISTIOPHORIDAE - Sawsharks

Pristiophorus nancyae - African dwarf sawshark

Pliotrema warreni - Sixgill sawshark

Pristiophorus cirratus - Longnose sawshark

Pristiophorus japonicus - Japanese sawshark

Pristiophorus nudipinnis - Shortnose sawshark

Pristiophorus schroederi - Bahamas sawshark

 

Order SQUATINIFORMES - Angelsharks   BACK TO TOP

Family SQUATINIDAE - Angelsharks
Squatina aculeata - Sawback angelshark

Squatina albipunctata - Eastern Australian angelshark

Squatina africana - African angelshark

Squatina argentina - Argentine angelshark

Squatina australis - Australian angelshark

Squatina californica - Pacific angelshark

Squatina caillieti - Philippine angelshark

Squatina dumeril - Sand devil

Squatina formosa - Taiwan angelshark

Squatina guggenheim - Angular angelshark

Squatina japonica - Japanese angelshark

Squatina nebulosa - Clouded angelshark

Squatina oculata - Smoothback angelshark

Squatina squatina - Common Angel Shark

Squatina tergocellata - Ornate angelshark

Squatina tergocellatoides - Ocellated angelshark

 

  Order HETERODONTIFORMES - Bullhead Sharks   BACK TO TOP

Family HETERODONTIDAE - Bullhead sharks

Heterodontus francisci - Horn shark

Heterodontus galeatus - Crested bullhead shark

Heterodontus japonicus - Japanese bullhead shark

Heterodontus mexicanus - Mexican hornshark

Heterodontus portusjacksoni - Port Jackson shark

Heterodontus quoyi - Galapagos bullhead shark

Heterodontus ramalheira - Whitespotted bullhead shark

Heterodontus zebra - Zebra bullhead shark

 

Order ORECTOLOBIFORMES - Carpetsharks   BACK TO TOP

Family PARASCYLLIDAE - Collared Carpetsharks

Cirrhoscyllium expolitum - Barbelthroat carpetshark

Cirrhoscyllium formosanum - Taiwan saddled carpetshark

Cirrhoscyllium japonicum - Saddled carpetshark

Parascyllium ferrugineum - Rusty carpetshark

Parascyllium multimaculatum - Tasmanian carpetshark

Parascyllium variolatum - Necklace carpetshark or Varied carpetshark

 

Family BRACHAELURIDAE - Blind sharks

Brachaelurus waddi - Blind shark

Heteroscyllium colcloughi - Bluegrey carpetshark

 

Family ORECTOLOBIDAE - Wobbegongs

Eucrossorhinus dasypogon - Tasselled wobbegong

Orectolobus floridus - Floral wobbegong

Orectolobus halei - Banded wobbegong

Orectolobus hutchinsi - Western wobbegong

Orectolobus japonicus - Japanese wobbegong

Orectolobus leptolineatus - Indonesian wobbegong

Orectolobus maculatus - Spotted wobbegong

Orectolobus ornatus - Dwarf ornate wobbegong

Orectolobus parvimaculatus - Dwarf spotted wobbegong

Orectolobus reticulatus - Northern Wobbegong

Orectolobus wardi - Wards wobbegong

Sutorectus tentaculatus - Cobbler wobbegong

 

Family HEMISCYLLIDAE - Longtailed Carpetshark

Chiloscyllium arabicum - Arabian carpetshark

Chiloscyllium burmensis - Burmese bambooshark

Chiloscyllium caerulopunctatum - Bluespotted bambooshark

Chiloscyllium griseum - Grey bambooshark

Chiloscyllium hasselti - Indonesian bambooshark

Chiloscyllium indicum - Slender bambooshark

Chiloscyllium plagiosum - Whitespotted bambooshark

Chiloscyllium punctatum - Brownbanded bambooshark

Hemiscyllium freycineti - Indonesian speckled carpetshark

Hemiscyllium hallstromi - Papuan epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium ocellatum - Epaulette shark

Hemiscyllium strahani - Hooded carpetshark

Hemiscyllium trispeculare - Speckled carpetshark

 

Family GINGLYMOSTOMATIDAE - Nurse Sharks

Ginglymostoma brevicaudatum - Shorttail nurse shark

Ginglymostoma cirratum - Nurse shark

Nebrius ferrugineus - Tawny nurse shark or giant sleepy shark

 

Family STEGOSTOMATIDAE - Zebra Sharks

Stegostoma fasciatum - Zebra shark

 

Family RHINCODONTIDAE - Whale Sharks

Rhincodon typus - Whale shark

 

Order LAMNIFORMES - Mackerel Sharks   BACK TO TOP

Family ODONTASPIDIDAE - Sand Tiger Sharks

Carcharias taurus - Sand tiger, spotted raggedtooth, or grey nurse shark

Odontaspis ferox - Smalltooth sand tiger or bumpytail raggedtooth

Odontaspis noronhai - Bigeye sand tiger

 

Family PSEUDOCARCHARIDAE - Crocodile Sharks

Pseudocarcharias kamoharai - Crocodile shark


Family MITSUKURINIDAE - Goblin Sharks

Mitsukurina owstoni - Goblin shark

 

Family MEGACHASMIDAE - Megamouth Sharks

Megachasma pelagios - Megamouth Shark

 

Family ALOPIIDAE - Thresher Sharks

Alopias pelagicus - Pelagic thresher

Alopias superciliosus - Bigeye thresher

Alopias vulpinus - Thresher shark

 

Family CETORHINIDAE - Basking Sharks

Cetorhinus maximus - Basking shark

 

Family LAMNIDAE - Mackerel Sharks

Carcharodon carcharias - Great white shark

Isurus oxyrinchus - Shortfin mako

Isurus paucus - Longfin mako

Lamna ditropis - Salmon shark

Lamna nasus - Probeagle shark

 

Order CARCHARHINIFORMES - Ground Sharks   BACK TO TOP

 

Family SCYLIORHINIDAE - Catsharks

Apristurus atlanticus - Atlantic ghost catshark

Apristurus brunneus - Brown catshark

Apristurus canutus - Hoary catshark

Apristurus federovi - Federov's catshark

Apristurus herklotsi - Longfin catshark

Apristurus indicus - Smallbelly catshark

Apristurus investigatoris - Broadnose catshark

Apristurus japonicus - Japanese catshark

Apristurus kampae - Longnose catshark

Apristurus laurussoni - Iceland catshark

Apristurus longicephalus - Longhead catshark

Apristurus macrorhynchus - Flathead catshark

Apristurus maderensis - Madeira catshark

Apristurus manis - Ghost catshark

Apristurus microps - Smalleye catshark

Apristurus nasutus - Largenose catshark

Apristurus parvipinnis - Smallfin catshark

Apristurus pinguis - Fat catshark

Apristurus platyrhynchus - Spatulasnout catshark

Apristurus profundorum - Deepwater catshark

Apristurus riveri - Broadgill catshark

Apristurus saldanha - Saldanha catshark

Apristurus sibogae - Pale catshark

Apristurus sinensis - South China catshark

Apristurus spongiceps - Spongehead catshark

Apristurus stenseni - Panama ghost catshark

Apristurus verweyi - Borneo catshark

Asymbolus analis - Australian spotted catshark

Asymbolus vincenti - Gulf catshark

Atelomycterus macleayi - Australian marbled catshark

Atelomycterus marmoratus - Coral catshark

Aulohalaelurus labiosus - Blackspotted catshark

Cephaloscyllium fasciatum - Reticulated swellshark

Cephaloscyllium isabellum - Draughtsboard shark

Cephaloscyllium laticeps - Australian swellshark

Cephaloscyllium nascione - Whitefinned swellshark

Cephaloscyllium silasi - Indian swellshark

Cephaloscyllium sufflans - Balloon shark

Cephaloscyllium ventriosum - Swellshark

Cephalurus cephalus - Lollipop catshark

Galeus arae - Roughtail catshark

Galeus boardmani - Australian sawtail catshark

Galeus eastmani - Gecko catshark

Galeus melastomus - Blackmouth catshark

Galeus murinus - Mouse catshark

Galeus nipponensis - Broadfin sawtail catshark

Galeus piperatus - Peppered catshark

Galeus polli - African sawtail catshark

Galeus sauteri - Blacktip sawtail catshark

Galeus schultzi - Dwarf sawtail catshark

Halaelurus alcocki - Arabian catshark

Halaelurus boesemani - Speckled catshark

Halaelurus buergeri - Blackspotted catshark

Halaelurus canescens - Dusky catshark

Halaelurus dawsoni - New Zealand catshark

Halaelurus hispidus - Bristly catshark

Halaelurus immaculatus - Spotless catshark

Halaelurus lineatus - Lined catshark

Halaelurus lutarius - Mud catshark

Halaelurus natalensis - Tiger catshark

Halaelurus quagga - Quagga catshark

Haploblepharus edwardsii - Puffadder shyshark

Haploblepharus fuscus - Brown shyshark

Haploblepharus kistnasamyi - Natal shyshark

Haploblepharus pictus - Dark shyshark

Holohalaelurus punctatus - African spotted catshark

Holohalaelurus regani - Izak catshark

Parmaturus campechiensis - Campeche catshark

Parmaturus macmillani - New Zealand filetail

Parmaturus melanobranchius - Blackgill catshark

Parmaturus pilosus - Salamander shark

Parmaturus xaniurus - Filetail catshark

Pentanchus profundicolus - Onefin catshark

Poroderma africanum - Striped catshark or pyjama shark

Poroderma patherinum - Leopard catshark

Schroederichthys bivius - Narrowmouth catshark

Schroederichthys chilensis - Redspotted catshark

Schroederichthys maculatus - Narrowtail catshark

Schroederichthys tenuis - Slender catshark

Scyliorhinus besnardi - Polkadot catshark

Scyliorhinus boa - Boa catshark

Scyliorhinus canicula - Lesser spotted catshark

Scyliorhinus capensis - Yellowspotted catshark

Scyliorhinus cervigoni - West African catshark

Scyliorhinus garmani - Brownspotted catshark

Scyliorhinus haeckelii - Freckled catshark

Scyliorhinus hesperius - Whitesaddled catshark

Scyliorhinus meadi - Blotched catshark

Scyliorhinus retifer - Chain catshark

Scyliorhinus stellaris - Nursehound

Scyliorhinus torazame - Cloudy catshark

Scyliorhinus torrei - Dwarf catshark

 

Family PROSCYLLIDAE - Finback Catsharks

Ctenacis fehlmanni - Harlequin catshark

Eridacnis barbouri - Cuban ribbontail catshark

Eridacnis radcliffei - Pygmy ribbontail catshark

Eridacnis sinuans - African ribbontail catshark

Gollum attentuatus - Slender smoothhound

Proscyllium habereri - Graceful catshark

 

Family PSEUDOTRIAKIDAE - False Catsharks

Pseudotriakis microdon - False catshark

 

Family LEPTOCHARIIDAE - Barbeled Houndshark

Leptocharias smithii - Barbeled houndshark

 

Family TRIAKIDAE - Houndsharks

Furgaleus macki - Whiskery shark

Galeorhinus galeus - Tope shark

Gogolia filewoodi - Sailback houndshark

Hemitriakis japanica - Japanese topeshark

Hemitriakis leucoperiptera - Whitefin topeshark

Hypogaleus hyugaensis - Blacktip topeshark

Iago garricki - Longnose houndshark

Iago omanensis - Bigeye houndshark

Mustelus albipinnis - Whitemargin Smoothhound (aka M.hacat)

Mustelus antarcticus - Gummy shark

Mustelus asterias - Starry smoothhound

Mustelus californicus - Grey smoothhound

Mustelus canis - Dusky smoothhound / Smooth Dogfish

Mustelus dorsalis - Sharpnose smoothhound

Mustelus fasciatus - Striped smoothhound

Mustelus griseus - Spotless smoothhound

Mustelus henlei - Brown smoothhound

Mustelus higmani - Smalleye smoothhound

Mustelus lenticulatus - Spotted estuary smoothhound or rig

Mustelus lunulatus - Sicklefin smoothhound

Mustelus manazo - Starspotted smoothhound

Mustelus mento - Speckled smoothhound

Mustelus mosis - Arabian, hardnose, or Moses smoothhound

Mustelus mustelus - Smoothhound

Mustelus norrisi - Narrowfin or Florida smoothhound

Mustelus palumbes - Whitespot smoothhound

Mustelus punctulatus - Blackspot smoothhound

Mustelus schmitti - Narrownose smoothhound

Mustelus sinusmexicanus - Gulf of Mexico smoothhound

Mustelus whitneyi - Humpback smoothhound

Scylliogaleus quecketti - Flapnose houndshark

Triakis acutipinna - Sharpfin houndshark

Triakis maculata - Spotted houndshark

Triakis megalopterus - Sharptooth houndshark or spotted gully shark

Triakis scyllium - Banded houndshark

Triakis semifasciata - Leopard shark

 

Family HEMIGALEIDAE - Weasel sharks

Chaenogaleus macrostoma - Hooktooth shark

Hemigaleus microstoma - Sicklefin weasel shark

Hemipristis elongatus - Snaggletooth shark

Paragaleus leucolomatus - Whitetip weasel shark

Paragaleus pectoralis - Atlantic weasel shark

Paragaleus tengi - Straighttooth weasel shark

 

Family CARCHARHINIDAE - Requiem sharks

Carcharhinus acronotus - Blacknose shark

Carcharhinus albimarginatus - Silvertip shark

Carcharhinus altimus - Bignose shark

Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides - Graceful shark

Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos - Grey reef shark

Carcharhinus amboinensis - Pigeye or Java shark

Carcharhinus borneensis - Borneo shark

Carcharhinus brachyurus - Copper shark or bronze whaler

Carcharhinus brevipinna - Spinner shark

Carcharhinus cautus - Nervous shark

Carcharhinus cerdale - Pacific smalltail shark

Carcharhinus dussumieri - Whitecheek shark

Carcharhinus falciformis - Silky shark

Carcharhinus fitzroyensis - Creek whaler

Carcharhinus galapagenisis - Galapagos shark

Carcharhinus hemiodon - Pondicherry shark

Carcharhinus isodon - Finetooth shark

Carcharhinus leucas - Bull or Zambezi shark

Carcharhinus limbatus - Blacktip shark

Carcharhinus longimanus - Oceanic whitetip shark

Carcharhinus macloti - Hardnose shark

Carcharhinus melanopterus - Blacktip reef shark

Carcharhinus obscurus - Dusky shark

Carcharhinus perezi - Caribbean reef shark

Carcharhinus plumbeus - Sandbar shark

Carcharhinus porosus - Smalltail shark

Carcharhinus sealei - Blackspot shark

Carcharhinus signatus - Night shark

Carcharhinus sorrah - Spottail shark

Carcharhinus wheeleri - Blacktail reef shark

Galeocerdo cuvier - Tiger shark

Glyphis gangeticus - Ganges shark

Glyphis glyphis - Speartooth shark

Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus - Daggernose shark

Lamiopsis temmincki - Broadfin shark

Loxodon macrorhinus - Sliteye shark

Nasolamia velox - Whitenose shark

Negraprion acutidens - Sharptooth lemon shark

Negraprion brevirostris - Lemon shark

Prionace glauca - Blue shark

Rhizoprionodon acutus - Milk shark

Rhizoprionodon lalandei - Brazilian sharpnose shark

Rhizoprionodon longurio - Pacific sharpnose shark

Rhizoprionodon oligolinx - Grey sharpnose shark

Rhizopriondon porosus - Carribean sharpnose shark

Rhizopriondon taylori - Australian sharpnose shark

Rhizopriondon terraenovae - Atlantic sharpnose shark

Scoliodon laticaudus - Spadenose shark

Triaenodon obesus - Whitetip reef shark

 

Family SPHYRNIDAE - Hammerhead sharks

Eusphyra blochii - Winghead shark

Sphyrna corona - Mallethead shark

Sphyrna couardi - Whitefin hammerhead

Sphyrna lewini - Scalloped hammerhead

Sphyrna media - Scoophead shark

Sphyrna mokarran - Great hammerhead

Sphyrna tiburo - Bonnethead shark

Sphyrna tudes - Smalleye hammerhead 

Sphyrna zygaena - Smooth hammerhead

Sphyrna Sp.A - Cryptic Scalloped hammerhead

 

Order TORPEDINIFORMES - Electric rays   BACK TO TOP

 

Family Hypnidae - Coffin rays

Hypnos monopterygium - Australian numbfish, Coffin ray, Crampfish

 

Family Narkidae - Electric rays

Benthobatis marcida - blind torpedo (occurs below 200m depth)

Diplobatis ommata - Bulls-eye electric ray (Occurs on sand and mud bottoms. Eastern pacific)

Discopyge tschudii -  Apron Ray (Found on both coasts of southern South America).

Heteronarce garmani - Natal electric ray

Narcine brasiliensis - Lesser electric ray (Found on sandy or muddy bottoms in shallow water. Max recorded depth 36m)

Narcine brevilabiata - (Offshore species found on continental tropical waters, known from a depth of 49 m).

Narcine brunnea - Brown numbfish (Continental waters)

Narcine entemedor - Giant electric ray (Benthic in shallow, protected waters, over muddy bottom).

Narcine indica -

Narcine lingula (found in continental waters both inshore and offshore).

Narcine prodorsalis - (Continental waters both inshore and offshore. Known from a depth of 49m).

Narcine timlei - Spotted numbfish (Continental waters, inshore and offshore).

Narcine vermiculatus - Vermiculate electric ray (Benthic on soft bottoms in protected coastal areas).

Narke dipterygia - Numbray (Shallow coastal waters)        

Narke japonica - Shibire-ei (Japanese. Caught in local inshore and offshore fisheries).

Temera hardwickii - Pari karas (Malay/Indonesian. Found inshore and offshore)

 

Family Torpedinidae - Torpedo rays

Crassinarke dormitor - Nemuri-shibire-ei (Japanese)

 

Torpedo alexandrinsis - Alexandrine torpedo

Torpedo andersoni - Florida torpedo

Torpedo bauchotae - Rosette torpedo

Torpedo californica - Pacific electric ray

Torpedo fairchildi - New Zealand torpedo

Torpedo fuscomaculata - Black-spotted torpedo

Torpedo mackayana - Ringed torpedo

Torpedo macneilli - Shorttail torpedo

Torpedo marmorata - Marbled Torpedo Ray

Torpedo microdiscus - Smalldisk torpedo

Torpedo nobiliana - Atlantic torpedo

Torpedo panthera - Panther electric ray

Torpedo peruana - Peruvian torpedo

Torpedo puelcha - Argentine torpedo

Torpedo semipelagica - Semipelagic torpedo

Torpedo Sinuspersici - Variable torpedo ray

Torpedo tokionsis - Trapezoid torpedo

Torpedo torpedo - Common torpedo

Torpedo tremens - torpedo

 

Order MYLIOBATIFORMES - Stingrays, Eagle rays, Devil rays   BACK TO TOP

 

Family DASYATIDAE - Whiptail stingrays

Dasyatis acutirostra Nishida & Nakaya, 1988 

Dasyatis akajei (Müller & Henle, 1841)Red stingray 

Dasyatis americana Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928Southern stingray 

Dasyatis annotata Last, 1987Plain maskray 

Dasyatis bennetti (Müller & Henle, 1841)Bennett's stingray 

Dasyatis brevicaudata (Hutton, 1875)Short-tail stingray 

Dasyatis brevis (Garman, 1880)Whiptail stingray 

Dasyatis centroura (Mitchill, 1815)Roughtail stingray 

Dasyatis chrysonota chrysonota(Smith, 1828)Blue stingray 

Dasyatis colarensis (Santos, 2004) Colares stingray 

Dasyatis dipterura (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880)Diamond stingray 

Dasyatis fluviorum Ogilby, 1908Estuary stingray 

Dasyatis garouaensis (Stauch & Blanc, 1962)Smooth freshwater stingray 

Dasyatis geijskesi Boeseman, 1948Sharpsnout stingray 

Dasyatis gigantea (Lindberg, 1930)Giant stumptail stingray 

Dasyatis guttata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)Longnose stingray 

Dasyatis hastata (Dekay, 1842)

Dasyatis hypostigma (Santos & Carvalho, 2004) Groovebelly stingray

Dasyatis izuensis Nishida & Nakaya, 1988Izu stingray 

Dasyatis kuhlii (Müller & Henle, 1841)Bluespotted stingray 

Dasyatis laevigata Chu, 1960Yantai stingray 

Dasyatis laosensis Roberts & Karnasuta, 1987Mekong stingray 

Dasyatis lata (Garman, 1880)Brown stingray 

Dasyatis leylandi Last, 1987Painted maskray 

Dasyatis longa (Garman, 1880)Longtail stingray 

Dasyatis margarita (Günther, 1870)Daisy stingray 

Dasyatis margaritella Compagno & Roberts, 1984Pearl stingray 

Dasyatis marianae Gomes, Rosa & Gadig, 2000

Dasyatis marmorata (Steindachner 1892) Marbled stingray 

Dasyatis matsubarai Miyosi, 1939Pitted stingray 

Dasyatis microps (Annandale, 1908)Smalleye stingray 

Dasyatis multispinosa (Tokarev, 1959)Multispine giant stingray 

Dasyatis navarrae (Steindachner, 1892)Blackish stingray

Dasyatis parvonigra (Last & White, 2008) Dwarf black stingray 

Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758)Common stingray

Dasyatis rudis (Günther, 1870)Smalltooth stingray 

Dasyatis sabina (Lesueur, 1824)Atlantic stingray 

Dasyatis sayi (Lesueur, 1817)Bluntnose stingray 

Dasyatis sinensis (Steindachner, 1892)Chinese stingray 

Dasyatis thetidis Ogilby, 1899Thorntail stingray 

Dasyatis tortonesei Capapé, 1975Tortonese's stingray

Dasyatis ukpam (Smith, 1863) Thorny freshwater stingray 

Dasyatis ushiei (Jordan & Hubbs, 1925)Cow stingray 

Dasyatis zugei (Müller & Henle, 1841)Pale-edged stingray 

Himantura alcocki (Annandale, 1909)Pale-spot whip ray 

Himantura bleekeri (Blyth, 1860)Bleeker's whipray 

Himantura chaophraya Monkolprasit & Roberts, 1990Freshwater whipray 

Himantura draco Compagno & Heemstra, 1984Dragon stingray 

Himantura fai Jordan & Seale, 1906Pink whipray 

Himantura fluviatilis (Hamilton, 1822)Ganges stingray 

Himantura gerrardi (Gray, 1851)Sharpnose stingray 

Himantura granulata (Macleay, 1883)Mangrove whipray 

Himantura imbricata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)Scaly whipray 

Himantura jenkinsii (Annandale, 1909)Pointed-nose stingray 

Himantura krempfi (Chabanaud, 1923)Marbled freshwater whip ray 

Himantura marginata (Blyth, 1860)Blackedge whipray 

Himantura microphthalma (Chen, 1948)Smalleye whip ray 

Himantura oxyrhyncha (Sauvage, 1878)Marbled whipray 

Himantura pacifica (Beebe & Tee-Van, 1941)Pacific chupare 

Himantura pareh (Bleeker, 1852) 

Himantura pastinacoides (Bleeker, 1852)Round whip ray

Himantura randalli (Last 2012) Randall's Whipray.

Himantura schmardae (Werner, 1904)Chupare stingray 

Himantura signifer Compagno & Roberts, 1982White-edge freshwater whip ray 

Himantura toshi Whitley, 1939Black-spotted whipray 

Himantura uarnacoides (Bleeker, 1852)Whitenose whip ray 

Himantura uarnak (Forsskål, 1775)Honeycomb stingray 

Himantura undulata (Bleeker, 1852)Leopard whipray 

Himantura walga (Müller & Henle, 1841)Dwarf whipray 

Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål, 1775)Cowtail stingray 

Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832)Pelagic stingray 

Taeniura grabata (Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1817)Round stingray 

Taeniura lymma (Forsskål, 1775)Bluespotted ribbontail / fantail ray 

Taeniura meyeni Müller & Henle, 1841Blotched fantail ray 

Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)Porcupine ray 

Urogymnus ukpam (Smith, 1863)Thorny freshwater stingray

 

Family UROLOPHIDAE - Indo-Pacific round stingrays (stingarees)

Trygonoptera mucosa(Whitley, 1939)Western shovelnose stingaree 

Trygonoptera ovalisLast & Gomon, 1987Striped stingaree 

Trygonoptera personataLast & Gomon, 1987Masked stingaree 

Trygonoptera testaceaMüller & Henle, 1841Common stingaree 

Urolophus armatusMüller & Henle, 1841New Ireland stingaree 

Urolophus aurantiacusMüller & Henle, 1841Sepia stingray 

Urolophus bucculentusMacleay, 1884Sandyback stingaree 

Urolophus circularisMcKay, 1966Circular stingaree 

Urolophus cruciatus(Lacepède, 1804)Crossback stingaree 

Urolophus expansusMcCulloch, 1916Wide stingaree 

Urolophus flavomosaicusLast & Gomon, 1987Patchwork stingaree 

Urolophus gigasScott, 1954Spotted stingaree 

Urolophus javanicus(Martens, 1864)Java stingaree 

Urolophus kaianusGünther, 1880Kai stingaree 

Urolophus kapalae (pending) Kapala stingaree 

Urolophus lobatusMcKay, 1966Lobed stingaree 

Urolophus mitosisLast & Gomon, 1987Mitotic stingaree 

Urolophus orariusLast & Gomon, 1987Coastal stingaree 

Urolophus paucimaculatusDixon, 1969Sparsely-spotted stingaree 

Urolophus sufflavusWhitley, 1929Yellowback stingaree 

Urolophus viridisMcCulloch, 1916Greenback stingaree 

Urolophus westraliensisLast & Gomon, 1987Brown stingaree 

 

Family UROTRYGONIDAE - Pan-American round stingrays

Urobatis concentricusOsburn & Nichols, 1916Spot-on-spot round ray / Bullseye Stingray

Urobatis halleri(Cooper, 1863)Haller's round ray 

Urobatis jamaicensis(Cuvier, 1816)Yellow stingray 

Urobatis maculatusGarman, 1913Cortez round ray 

Urobatis marmoratus(Philippi, 1893)Chilean round stingray 

Urobatis tumbesensis(Chirichigno F. & McEachran, 1979)Tumbes round stingray 

Urotrygon aspidura(Jordan & Gilbert, 1882)Spiny-tail round ray 

Urotrygon chilensis(Günther, 1872)Chilean round ray 

Urotrygon cimarLópez S. & Bussing, 1998 

Urotrygon microphthalmumDelsman, 1941Smalleyed round stingray 

Urotrygon mundaGill, 1863Munda round ray 

Urotrygon nanaMiyake & McEachran, 1988Dwarf round ray 

Urotrygon reticulataMiyake & McEachran, 1988Reticulate round ray 

Urotrygon rogersi(Jordan & Starks, 1895)Roger's round ray 

Urotrygon serrulaHildebrand, 1946Stingray 

Urotrygon simulatrixMiyake & McEachran, 1988Fake round ray 

Urotrygon venezuelaeSchultz, 1949Venezuela round stingray 

 

 

Family Plesiobatidae - Deepwater stingrays

Plesiobatis daviesi (Wallace, 1967) Deepwater stingray

 

Family Potamotrygonidae - Freshwater/River stingrays

Heliotrygon gomesi, n. sp. Carvalho and Lovejoy 2013

Heliotrygon rosai,n.sp. Carvalho and Lovejoy 2013

Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle, 1841)Discus ray

Plesiotrygon iwamae Rosa, Castello &Thorson, 1987Long-tailed river stingray 

Potamotrygon brachyura (Günther, 1880)Short-tailed river stingray 

Potamotrygon castexi Castello & Yagolkowski, 1969Vermiculate river stingray 

Potamotrygon constellata (Vaillant, 1880)Thorny river stingray 

Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963Largespot river stingray 

Potamotrygon henlei (Castelnau, 1855)Bigtooth river stingray 

Potamotrygon histrix (Müller & Henle, 1834)Porcupine river stingray 

Potamotrygon limai (Fontenelle, Silva and Carvalho)

Potamotrygon leopoldi Castex & Castello, 1970White-blotched river stingray 

Potamotrygon magdalenae (Valenciennes, 1865)Magdalena river stingray 

Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841)Ocellate river stingray 

Potamotrygon ocellata (Engelhardt, 1912)Red-blotched river stingray 

Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau, 1855)Smooth back river stingray 

Potamotrygon schroederi Fernández-Yépez, 1957Rosette river stingray 

Potamotrygon schuehmacheri Castex, 1964 

Potamotrygon scobina Garman, 1913Raspy river stingray 

Potamotrygon signata Garman, 1913Parnaiba river stingray 

Potamotrygon yepezi Castex & Castello, 1970Maracaibo river stingray 

Trygon garrapa Schomburgk, 1843

 

Family Gymnuridae - Butterfly rays

Aetoplatea tentaculataMüller & Henle, 1841Tentacled butterfly ray 

Aetoplatea zonuraBleeker, 1852Zonetail butterfly ray 

Gymnura afuerae(Hildebrand, 1946) 

Gymnura altavela(Linnaeus, 1758)Spiny butterfly ray 

Gymnura australis(Ramsay & Ogilby, 1886)Australian butterfly ray 

Gymnura bimaculata(Norman, 1925)Twin-spot butterfly ray 

Gymnura crebripunctata(Peters, 1869)Longsnout butterfly ray 

Gymnura crookiFowler, 1934 

Gymnura hirundo(Lowe, 1843)Madeira butterfly ray 

Gymnura japonica(Temminck & Schlegel, 1850)Japanese butterflyray 

Gymnura marmorata(Cooper, 1864)California butterfly ray 

Gymnura micrura(Bloch & Schneider, 1801)Smooth butterfly ray 

Gymnura natalensis(Gilchrist & Thompson, 1911)Backwater butterfly ray 

Gymnura poecilura(Shaw, 1804)Longtail butterfly ray 

 

Family Hexatrygonidae - Sixgill stingrays

Hexatrygon bickelliHeemstra & Smith, 1980Sixgill stingray 

Hexatrygon longirostra(Chu & Meng, 1981) 

Hexatrygon taiwanensisShen, 1986 

Hexatrygon yangiShen & Liu, 1984 

 

Family Myliobatidae - Eagle rays

Aetobatus flagellum(Bloch & Schneider, 1801)Longheaded eagle ray 

Aetobatus guttatus(Shaw, 1804)Sharpwing eagle ray 

Aetobatus narinari(Euphrasen, 1790)Spotted eagle ray

Aetobatus narutobiei (White, Furumitsu, Yamaguchi)

Aetobatus ocellatus(Kuhl & van Hasselt, 1823) 

Aetomylaeus maculatus(Gray, 1834)Mottled eagle ray 

Aetomylaeus milvus(Müller & Henle, 1841) 

Aetomylaeus nichofii(Bloch & Schneider, 1801)Banded eagle ray 

Aetomylaeus vespertilio(Bleeker, 1852)Ornate eagle ray 

Myliobatis aquila (Linnaeus, 1758)Common eagle ray 

Myliobatis australisMacleay, 1881Australian bull ray 

Myliobatis californicaGill, 1865Bat eagle ray 

Myliobatis chilensisPhilippi, 1893Chilean eagle ray 

Myliobatis freminvilliiLesueur, 1824Bullnose eagle ray 

Myliobatis goodeiGarman, 1885Southern eagle ray 

Myliobatis hamlyniOgilby, 1911Purple eagle ray 

Myliobatis longirostrisApplegate & Fitch, 1964Snouted eagle ray 

Myliobatis peruvianusGarman, 1913Peruvian eagle ray 

Myliobatis tenuicaudatusHector, 1877New Zealand eagle ray 

Myliobatis tobijeiBleeker, 1854Japanese eagle ray 

Pteromylaeus asperrimus(Gilbert, 1898)Rough eagle ray 

Pteromylaeus bovinus(Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1817)Bull ray

 

Family Mobulidae - Devil rays

Manta birostris(Walbaum, 1792)Giant manta 

Manta ehrenbergii(Müller & Henle, 1841) 

Mobula coillotiCadenat & Rancurel, 1960Greater Guinean mobula 

Mobula diabola(Shaw, 1804)Devil ray 

Mobula eregoodootenkeeGarman, 1913Pygmy devilray 

Mobula hypostoma(Bancroft, 1831)Lesser devil ray 

Mobula japanica(Müller & Henle, 1841)Spinetail mobula 

Mobula kuhlii(Müller & Henle, 1841)Shortfin devil ray 

Mobula mobular(Bonnaterre, 1788)Devil fish 

Mobula munkianaNotarbartolo-di-Sciara, 1987Munk's devil ray 

Mobula rancureliCadenat, 1959 

Mobula rochebrunei(Vaillant, 1879)Lesser Guinean devil ray 

Mobula tarapacana(Philippi, 1893)Chilean devil ray 

Mobula thurstoni(Lloyd, 1908)Smooth-tail mobula (Bentfin devil ray)

 

Family Rhinopteridae - Cownose rays

Rhinoptera adspersaMüller & Henle, 1841Rough cownose ray 

Rhinoptera bonasus(Mitchill, 1815)Atlantic Cownose ray 

Rhinoptera brasiliensisMüller, 1836Ticon cownose ray 

Rhinoptera javanicaMüller & Henle, 1841Javanese cownose ray 

Rhinoptera jayakariBoulenger, 1895Oman cownose ray 

Rhinoptera marginata(Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1817)Lusitanian cownose ray 

Rhinoptera neglectaOgilby, 1912Australian cownose ray 

Rhinoptera steindachneriEvermann & Jenkins, 1891Pacific cownose ray 

 

Order RHINOBATIFORMES - Guitarfish   BACK TO TOP

Family Platyrhinidae - Thornback rays

Platyrhina limboonkengi Tang, 1933Amoy fanray 

Platyrhina sinensis(Bloch & Schneider, 1801)Fanray 

Platyrhinoidis triseriata(Jordan & Gilbert, 1880)Thornback guitarfish

 

Family Rhinobatidae - Guitarfishes

Aptychotrema bougainvillii(Müller & Henle, 1841)Short-snouted shovelnose ray

Aptychotrema rostrata(Shaw & Nodder, 1794)East Australian shovelnose ray

Aptychotrema vincentiana(Haacke, 1885)Western shovelnose ray 

Rhinobatos albomaculatusNorman, 1930White-spotted guitarfish

Rhinobatos annandaleiNorman, 1926Annandale's guitarfish

Rhinobatos annulatusMüller & Henle, 1841Lesser sandshark

Rhinobatos blochiiMüller & Henle, 1841Bluntnose guitarfish

Rhinobatos cemiculusGeoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817Blackchin guitarfish 

Rhinobatos formosensisNorman, 1926Taiwan guitarfish 

Rhinobatos glaucostigmaJordan & Gilbert, 1883Speckled guitarfish 

Rhinobatos granulatusCuvier, 1829Sharpnose guitarfish 

Rhinobatos halavi(Forsskål, 1775)Halavi's guitarfish 

Rhinobatos holcorhynchusNorman, 1922Slender guitarfish 

Rhinobatos horkeliiMüller & Henle, 1841Brazilian guitarfish 

Rhinobatos hynnicephalusRichardson, 1846Angel fish 

Rhinobatos irvineiNorman, 1931Spineback guitarfish 

Rhinobatos lentiginosusGarman, 1880Atlantic guitarfish 

Rhinobatos leucorhynchusGünther, 1867Whitesnout guitarfish 

Rhinobatos leucospilusNorman, 1926Grayspottted guitarfish 

Rhinobatos lionotusNorman, 1926Smoothback guitarfish 

Rhinobatos microphthalmusTeng, 1959Smalleyed guitarfish 

Rhinobatos obtususMüller & Henle, 1841Widenose guitarfish 

Rhinobatos ocellatusNorman, 1926 

Rhinobatos percellens(Walbaum, 1792)Chola guitarfish 

Rhinobatos petitiChabanaud, 1929Madagascar guitarfish 

Rhinobatos planicepsGarman, 1880Pacific guitarfish 

Rhinobatos prahliAcero P. & Franke, 1995Gorgona guitarfish 

Rhinobatos productusAyres, 1854Shovelnose guitarfish 

Rhinobatos punctiferCompagno & Randall, 1987Spotted guitarfish 

Rhinobatos rhinobatos(Linnaeus, 1758)Common guitarfish 

Rhinobatos salalahRandall & Compagno, 1995Salalah guitarfish 

Rhinobatos schlegeliiMüller & Henle, 1841Yellow guitarfish 

Rhinobatos spinosusGünther, 1870Spiny guitarfish 

Rhinobatos thouin(Anonymous, 1798)Clubnose guitarfish 

Rhinobatos typusBennett, 1830Giant shovelnose ray 

Rhinobatos variegatusNair & Lal Mohan, 1973Stripenose guitarfish 

Rhinobatos zanzibarensisNorman, 1926Zanzibar guitarfish 

Tarsistes philippiiJordan, 1919 

Trygonorrhina fasciataMüller & Henle, 1841Southern fiddler 

Trygonorrhina melaleucaScott, 1954Magpie fiddler ray 

Zanobatus schoenleinii(Müller & Henle, 1841)Striped panray 

Zapteryx brevirostris(Müller & Henle, 1841)Lesser guitarfish 

Zapteryx exasperata(Jordan & Gilbert, 1880)Banded guitarfish 

Zapteryx xysterJordan & Evermann, 1896

 

Family Rhynchobatidae - Sharkfin Guitarfishes

Rhina ancylostoma (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Bowmouth Guitarfish

Rhynchobatus australiaeWhitley, 1939Whitespotted wedgefish

Rhynchobatus djiddensis(Forsskål, 1775)Giant guitarfish 

Rhynchobatus immaculatus (PETER R. LAST1, HSUAN-CHING HO2,3,* & ROU-RONG CHEN3 2013)

Rhynchobatus laevis(Bloch & Schneider, 1801)Smooth nose wedgefish 

Rhynchobatus luebbertiEhrenbaum, 1915African wedgefish

 

Order PRISTIFORMES - Sawfishes   BACK TO TOP

Family Pristidae - Sawfishes

Anoxypristis cuspidata - Knifetooth sawfish, Narrow Sawfish

Pristis clavata - Dwarf sawfish

Pristis microdon - Largetooth sawfish, Freshwater Sawfish, Broadbill Sawfish

Pristis pectinata - Smalltooth sawfish

Pristis perotteti - Large-tooth sawfish

Pristis pristis - Common sawfish

Pristis zijsron - Longcomb sawfish, Green Sawfish

 

Order RAJIFORMES - Skates   BACK TO TOP

Family Rajidae - Skates

Amblyraja badia (Garman, 1899)Broad skate 

Amblyraja doellojuradoi (Pozzi, 1935)Southern thorny skate 

Amblyraja frerichsi (Krefft, 1968)Thickbody skate 

Amblyraja georgiana (Norman, 1938)Antarctic starry skate 

Amblyraja hyperborea (Collett, 1879)Arctic skate 

Amblyraja jenseni (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950)Jensen's skate 

Amblyraja radiata (Donovan, 1808)Thorny skate 

Amblyraja reversa (Lloyd, 1906)Reversed skate 

Amblyraja robertsi (Hulley, 1970)Bigmouth skate 

Amblyraja taaf (Meissner, 1987)Whiteleg skate 

Arhynchobatis asperrimus Waite, 1909Longtail skate 

Atlantoraja castelnaui (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907)Spotback skate 

Atlantoraja cyclophora (Regan, 1903)Eyespot skate 

Atlantoraja platana (Günther, 1880)La Plata skate 

athyraja abyssicola (Gilbert, 1896)Deepsea skate 

Bathyraja aguja (Kendall & Radcliffe, 1912)Aguja skate 

Bathyraja albomaculata (Norman, 1937)White-dotted skate 

Bathyraja aleutica (Gilbert, 1896)Aleutian skate 

Bathyraja andriashevi Dolganov, 1985Little-eyed skate 

Bathyraja bergi Dolganov, 1985Bottom skate 

Bathyraja brachyurops (Fowler, 1910)Broadnose skate 

Bathyraja caeluronigricans Ishiyama & Ishihara, 1977Purple-black skate 

Bathyraja diplotaenia (Ishiyama, 1952)Dusky-pink skate 

Bathyraja eatonii (Günther, 1876)Eaton's skate 

Bathyraja fedorovi Dolganov, 1985Cinnamon skate 

Bathyraja griseocauda (Norman, 1937)Graytail skate 

Bathyraja hesperafricana Stehmann, 1995West African skate 

Bathyraja hubbsi Ishihara & Ishiyama, 1985 

Bathyraja interrupta (Gill & Townsend, 1897)Sandpaper skate 

Bathyraja irrasa Hureau & Ozouf-Costaz, 1980Kerguelen sandpaper skate 

Bathyraja isotrachys (Günther, 1877)Raspback skate 

Bathyraja leucomelanos (Samuel Paco Iglésias) New Caledonia Skate?

Bathyraja lindbergi Ishiyama & Ishihara, 1977Commander skate 

Bathyraja longicauda (de Buen, 1959)Slimtail skate 

Bathyraja maccaini Springer, 1971McCain's skate 

Bathyraja macloviana (Norman, 1937)Patagonian skate 

Bathyraja maculata Ishiyama & Ishihara, 1977White-blotched skate 

Bathyraja magellanica (Philippi, 1902)Magellan skate 

Bathyraja matsubarai (Ishiyama, 1952)Dusky-purple skate 

Bathyraja meridionalis Stehmann, 1987Dark-belly skate 

Bathyraja minispinosa Ishiyama & Ishihara, 1977Smallthorn skate 

Bathyraja multispinis (Norman, 1937)Multispine skate 

Bathyraja murrayi (Günther, 1880)Murray's skate 

Bathyraja notoroensis Ishiyama & Ishihara, 1977Notoro skate 

Bathyraja pallida (Forster, 1967)Pale ray 

Bathyraja papilionifera Stehmann, 1985Butterfly skate 

Bathyraja parmifera (Bean, 1881)Alaska skate 

Bathyraja peruana McEachran & Miyake, 1984Peruvian skate 

Bathyraja pseudoisotrachys Ishihara & Ishiyama, 1985 

Bathyraja richardsoni (Garrick, 1961)Richardson's ray 

Bathyraja scaphiops (Norman, 1937)Cuphead skate 

Bathyraja schroederi (Krefft, 1968)Whitemouth skate 

Bathyraja shuntovi Dolganov, 1985Narrownose skate 

Bathyraja simoterus Ishiyama, 1967Hokkaido skate 

Bathyraja smirnovi (Soldatov & Pavlenko, 1915)Golden skate 

Bathyraja smithii (Müller & Henle, 1841)African softnose skate 

Bathyraja spinicauda (Jensen, 1914)Spinetail ray 

Bathyraja spinosissima (Beebe & Tee-Van, 1941)White skate 

Bathyraja trachouros (Ishiyama, 1958)Eremo skate 

Bathyraja trachura (Gilbert, 1892)Roughtail skate 

Bathyraja tzinovskii Dolganov, 1985Creamback skate 

Bathyraja violacea (Suvorov, 1935)Okhotsk skate 

Breviraja claramaculata McEachran & Matheson, 1985Brightspot skate 

Breviraja colesi Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948Lightnose skate 

Breviraja marklei McEachran & Miyake, 1987Nova Scotia skate 

Breviraja mouldi McEachran & Matheson, 1995Blacknose skate 

Breviraja nigriventralis McEachran & Matheson, 1985Blackbelly skate 

Breviraja spinosa Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950Spinose skate 

Cruriraja andamanica (Lloyd, 1909)Andaman leg skate 

Cruriraja atlantis Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948Atlantic leg skate 

Cruriraja cadenati Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962Broadfoot leg skate 

Cruriraja durbanensis (von Bonde & Swart, 1923)Smooth nose leg skate 

Cruriraja parcomaculata (von Bonde & Swart, 1923)Roughnose legskate 

Cruriraja poeyi Bigelow & Schroeder, 1948Cuban leg skate 

Cruriraja rugosa Bigelow & Schroeder, 1958Rough leg skate 

Cruriraja triangularis Smith, 1964Triangular legskate 

Dactylobatus armatus Bean & Weed, 1909Skilletskate 

Dactylobatus clarkii (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1958)Hookskate

Dipturus amphispinus (Last & Moonyeen, 2013) Philippine longsnout skate.

Dipturus batis (Linnaeus, 1758)Blue skate 

Dipturus bullisi (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962)Bullis skate 

Dipturus campbelli (Wallace, 1967)Blackspot skate 

Dipturus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848)Yellownose skate 

Dipturus crosnieri (Séret, 1989)Madagascar skate 

Dipturus doutrei (Cadenat, 1960)Violet skate 

Dipturus ecuadoriensis (Beebe & Tee-Van, 1941)Ecuador skate 

Dipturus garricki (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1958)San Blas skate 

Dipturus gigas (Ishiyama, 1958)Giant skate 

Dipturus gudgeri (Whitley, 1940)Bight skate 

Dipturus innominatus (Garrick & Paul, 1974)New Zealand smooth skate 

Dipturus johannisdavisi (Alcock, 1899)Travancore skate 

Dipturus kwangtungensis (Chu, 1960)Kwangtung skate 

Dipturus laevis (Mitchill, 1818)Barndoor skate 

Dipturus lanceorostratus (Wallace, 1967)Rattail skate 

Dipturus leptocaudus (Krefft & Stehmann, 1975)Thintail skate 

Dipturus linteus (Fries, 1838)Sailray 

Dipturus macrocaudus (Ishiyama, 1955)Bigtail skate 

Dipturus mennii Gomes & Paragó, 2001 

Dipturus nasutus (Müller & Henle, 1841)New Zealand rough skate 

Dipturus nidarosiensis (Storm, 1881)Norwegian skate 

Dipturus olseni (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951)Spreadfin skate 

Dipturus oregoni (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1958)Hooktail skate 

Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus, 1758)Longnosed skate 

Dipturus pullopunctatus (Smith, 1964)Slime skate 

Dipturus springeri (Wallace, 1967)Roughbelly skate 

Dipturus stenorhynchus (Wallace, 1967)Prow-nose skate 

Dipturus teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951)Prickly brown ray 

Dipturus tengu (Jordan & Fowler, 1903)Acutenose skate 

Dipturus trachydermus (Krefft & Stehmann, 1975) 

Fenestraja atripinna (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950)Blackfin pygmy skate 

Fenestraja cubensis (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950)Cuban pygmy skate 

Fenestraja ishiyamai (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962)Plain pygmy skate 

Fenestraja maceachrani (Séret, 1989)Madagascar pygmy skate 

Fenestraja mamillidens (Alcock, 1889)Prickly skate 

Fenestraja plutonia (Garman, 1881)Pluto skate 

Fenestraja sibogae (Weber, 1913)Siboga skate 

Fenestraja sinusmexicanus (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950)Gulf of Mexico pygmy skate 

Gurgesiella atlantica (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962)Atlantic pygmy skate 

Gurgesiella dorsalifera McEachran & Compagno, 1980Onefin skate 

Gurgesiella furvescensde Buen, 1959Dusky finless skate 

Irolita waitii (McCulloch, 1911)Southern round skate 

Leucoraja circularis (Couch, 1838)Sandy ray 

Leucoraja compagnoi (Stehmann, 1995)Tigertail skate 

Leucoraja erinacea (Mitchill, 1825)Little skate 

Leucoraja fullonica (Linnaeus, 1758)Shagreen ray 

Leucoraja garmani (Whitley, 1939)Freckled skate 

Leucoraja lentiginosa (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951)Speckled skate 

Leucoraja leucosticta (Stehmann, 1971)Whitedappled skate 

Leucoraja melitensis (Clark, 1926)Maltese ray 

Leucoraja naevus (Müller & Henle, 1841)Cuckoo ray 

Leucoraja occelata (Mitchill, 1815)Winter skate 

Leucoraja wallacei (Hulley, 1970)Yellow spotted skate 

Leucoraja yucatanensis (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1950)Yucatan skate 

Malacoraja kreffti (Stehmann, 1977)Krefft's ray 

Malacoraja senta (Garman, 1885)Smooth skate 

Malacoraja spinacidermis (Barnard, 1923)Roughskin skate 

Neoraja africana (Stehmann & Seret, 1983)West African pygmy skate 

Neoraja caerulea (Stehmann, 1976)Blue ray 

Neoraja carolinensis McEachran & Stehmann, 1984Carolina pygmy skate 

Neoraja stehmanni (Hulley, 1972)African pygmy skate 

Notoraja alisae (Bernard Séret and Peter R. Last 2012)

Notoraja asperula (Garrick & Paul, 1974)Prickly deepsea skate 

Notoraja fijiensis (Bernard Séret and Peter R. Last 2012)

Notoraja inusitata (Bernard Séret and Peter R. Last 2012)

Notoraja laxipella (Yearsley & Last, 1992)Eastern looseskin skate

Notoraja longiventralis (Bernard Séret and Peter R. Last 2012) 

Notoraja ochroderma McEachran & Last, 1994Pale skate 

Notoraja spinifera (Garrick & Paul, 1974)Spiny deepsea skate 

Notoraja subtilispinosa Stehmann, 1989Velvet skate 

Notoraja tobitukai (Hiyama, 1940)Leadhued skate 

Okamejei acutispina (Ishiyama, 1958)Sharpspine skate 

Okamejei australis (Macleay, 1884)Sydney skate 

Okamejei boesemani (Ishihara, 1987)Boeseman's skate 

Okamejei cerva (Whitley, 1939)White-spotted skate 

Okamejei heemstrai (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1982)East African skate 

Okamejei hollandi (Jordan & Richardson, 1909)Yellow-spotted skate 

Okamejei kenojei (Müller & Henle, 1841)Ocellate spot skate 

Okamejei lemprieri (Richardson, 1845)Australian thornback skate 

Okamejei meerdervoortii (Bleeker, 1860)Bigeye skate 

Okamejei pita (Fricke & Al-Hassan, 1995)Pita skate 

Okamejei powelli (Alcock, 1898)Indian ringed skate 

Okamejei schmidti (Ishiyama, 1958)Browneye skate 

Pavoraja alleni McEachran & Fechhelm, 1982Allens skate 

Pavoraja nitida (Günther, 1880)Peacock skate 

Psammobatis bergiMarini, 1932Blotched sand skate 

Psammobatis extenta (Garman, 1913)Zipper sand skate 

Psammobatis lentiginosa McEachran, 1983Freckled sand skate 

Psammobatis normani McEachran, 1983Shortfin sand skate 

Psammobatis parvacauda McEachran, 1983Smalltail sand skate 

Psammobatis rudis Günther, 1870Smallthorn sand skate 

Psammobatis rutrum Jordan, 1891Spade sand skate 

Psammobatis scobina (Philippi, 1857)Raspthorn sand skate 

Pseudoraja fischeri Bigelow & Schroeder, 1954Fanfin skate 

Raja ackleyi Garman, 1881Ocellate skate 

Raja africana Capapé, 1977African ray 

Raja asterias Delaroche, 1809Starry ray 

Raja bahamensis Bigelow & Schroeder, 1965Bahama skate 

Raja binoculata Girard, 1855Big skate 

Raja brachyura Lafont, 1873Blonde ray 

Raja cervigoni Bigelow & Schroeder, 1964Finspot ray 

Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758Thornback ray 

Raja cortezensis McEachran & Miyake, 1988Cortez' ray 

Raja eglanteria Bosc, 1800Clearnose skate 

Raja equatorialis Jordan & Bollman, 1890Ecuatorial ray 

Raja flavirostris Philippi, 1893 

Raja herwigi Krefft, 1965Cape Verde skate 

Raja inornata Jordan & Gilbert, 1881California ray 

Raja koreana Jeong & Nakabo, 1997Korean skate 

Raja maderensis Lowe, 1838Madeiran ray 

Raja microocellata Montagu, 1818Small-eyed ray 

Raja miraletus Linnaeus, 1758Brown ray 

Raja montagui Fowler, 1910Spotted ray 

Raja polyommata Ogilby, 1910Argus skate 

Raja polystigma Regan, 1923Speckled ray 

Raja pulchra Liu, 1932Mottled skate 

Raja radula Delaroche, 1809Rough ray 

Raja rhina Jordan & Gilbert, 1880Longnose skate 

Raja rondeleti Bougis, 1959Rondelet's ray 

Raja rouxi Capapé, 1977 

Raja stellulata Jordan & Gilbert, 1880Starry skate 

Raja straeleni Poll, 1951Biscuit skate 

Raja texana Chandler, 1921Roundel skate 

Raja undulata Lacepède, 1802Undulate ray 

Raja velezi Chirichigno F., 1973Velez ray 

Raja whitleyi Iredale, 1938Wedgenose skate 

Rajella annandalei (Weber, 1913)Annandale's skate 

Rajella barnardi (Norman, 1935)Bigthorn skate 

Rajella bathyphila (Holt & Byrne, 1908)Deepwater ray 

Rajella bigelowi (Stehmann, 1978)Bigelow's ray 

Rajella caudaspinosa (von Bonde & Swart, 1923)Munchkin skate 

Rajella dissimilis (Hulley, 1970)Ghost skate 

Rajella eisenhardti Long & McCosker, 1999 

Rajella fuliginea (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1954)Sooty skate 

Rajella fyllae (Lütken, 1887)Round ray 

Rajella kukujevi (Dolganov, 1985)Mid-Atlantic skate 

Rajella leopardus (von Bonde & Swart, 1923)Leopard skate 

Rajella nigerrima (de Buen, 1960)Blackish skate 

Rajella purpuriventralis (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1962)Purplebelly skate 

Rajella ravidula (Hulley, 1970)Smoothback skate 

Rajella sadowskii (Krefft & Stehmann, 1974)Brazilian skate 

Rhinoraja kujiensis (Tanaka, 1916)Dapple-bellied softnose skate

Rhinoraja longi Raschi & McEachran, 1991Aleutian dotted skate 

Rhinoraja longicauda Ishiyama, 1952White-bellied softnose skate 

Rhinoraja obtusa (Gill & Townsend, 1897)Blunt skate 

Rhinoraja odai Ishiyama, 1958Oda's skate 

Rhinoraja taranetzi Dolganov, 1985Mud skate 

Rioraja agassizii (Müller & Henle, 1841)Rio skate 

Rostroraja alba (Lacepède, 1803)Bottlenosed skate 

Sympterygia acuta Garman, 1877Bignose fanskate 

Sympterygia bonapartii Müller & Henle, 1841Smallnose fanskate 

Sympterygia brevicaudata (Cope, 1877)Shorttail fanskate 

Sympterygia lima (Poeppig, 1835)Filetail fanskate 

 

 

SUBCLASS HOLOCEPHALI - CHIMAERAS

Order CHIMAERIFORMES - Chimaeras   BACK TO TOP

Family Callorhinchidae (plownose chimaeras)

Callorhinchus callorynchus (elephantfish)

Callorhinchus carpensis (elephantfish)

Callorhinchus milii (elephantfish) Occurs on continental shelves of cool temperate areas of Australia and New Zealand to depths of at least 200 m. Migrates into large estuaries and inshore bays in spring to breed.

 

Family Chimaeridae (shortnose chimaeras)

Chimaera bahamaensis

Chimaera jordani (Jordan-ginzame)

Chimaera monstrosa (rabbit fish) Atlantic. Upper continental slopes, 40 to 100m.

Chimaera notafricana South African chimaera

Chimaera owstoni (shirobuchi-ginzame)

Chimaera phantasma (silver chimaera) Continental shelves and upper slopes.

Hydrolagus affinis (Smalleyed rabbitfish, Atlantic Chimaera) Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean. Continental slopes to deep-sea plains.

Hydrolagus africanus (African chimaera)

Hydrolagus alberti 

Hydrolagus barbouri (ninespot chimaera)

Hydrolagus colliei (spotted ratfish)Found close inshore, near the bottom. Abundant in cold waters at moderate depths. Feeds on clams, crustaceans, and fishes. The spine can be dangerous and cause a painful wound. 

Hydrolagus deani (Philippine chimaera) Known from upper slopes at 469m

Hydrolagus eidolon (Niji-ginzame)

Hydrolagus lemures (Blackfin ghostshark) Common and wide-ranging chimaera of the Australian outer continental shelf and upper slopes.

Hydrolagus mirabilis (large-eyed rabbitfish) Moderately common on continental slopes. Feeds on small fishes and invertebrates. Oviparous

Hydrolagus mitsukurii (aka-ginzame)

Hydrolagus novaezealandiae (Dark ghostfish) Inhabits deep waters.  

Hydrolagus purpurescens (Purple chimaera) 

 

Family Rhinochimaeridae (longnose chimaeras)

Harriotta haeckeli (Smallspine spookfish) North Atlantic, taken in 1800-2600 m; specimens collected by Russian vessels from submarine seamounts of the Indian Ocean in 1400-1730 m; off St. Helens (Tasmania) in 1480-1700 m.

Harriotta raleighana (bentnose rabbitfish) Appears to feed mainly on shellfish and crustaceans that live on the bottom of the continental slope. Oviparous.

Neoharriotta pinnata

Rhinochimaera atlantica (Knifenose chimaera) Found on lower parts of the continental slopes

Rhinochimaera pacifica (Pacific spookfish) Occurs on the continental slope.

 

 


HOME     LINKS     TAXONOMY      UNDER THREAT     BOOKS     CONTACT

 

 

 

 SHARK TRIPS:
 

EXPEDITIONS

 

 

SPONSORS
 
ADVERTISERS

 
ELASMO-BLOGS

SharkPictures   Shark & Ray Field Guide   SharkPhotography   SharkDiving   Taxonomy   Evolution   Biology   SharkAttacks   Books   Shark Movies   Stories   Extinction   Protection   Updates   SiteMap

 

CONTACT ELASMODIVER

elasmodiver@gmail.com

250-588-8267

P.O.Box 8719 Station Central, Victoria, BC., V8W 3S3, Canada